Tuners are listed alphabetically by manufacturer
and in alphabetical and numerical sequence by model number. In
parentheses after the model number are the year of introduction and
most recent list price, and/or the original list price if indicated
by "orig" (special thanks to David Rich of The Audio Critic for
copies of historical material from his reference library). Please
see the On-Deck Circle for tuners that
we know very little about or that we're not sure merit a writeup. We have posted updated eBay sale price data in this section through December, 2009; data for "as is" or damaged tuners, or otherwise unrepresentative auctions, may be excluded.
Accuphase T-100 (1973-82, $750, photo1, photo2, brochure, service manual (page 6 is corrupted))
The FM-AM T-100 was made by Kensonic Laboratory, a company started by former Kenwood engineers in the mid '70s to compete with the likes of McIntosh, and distributed in the U.S. by TEAC. The T-100 has a 5-gang front end and is reputed to be a better performer than their less-expensive T-101, but we've never compared the two. The T-100 uses linear phase LC IF filters that can't be replaced, and you wouldn't want to because it has excellent selectivity in stock form. It has above average sensitivity for high-end units, and audiophile-type build quality in the discrete output stage, which results in great sound. Our contributor Bob S. adds, "The T-100 has quite a sophisticated AM section, with a flat-topped IF filter, and a separate haystack filter for the tuning indicator." The Accuphase catalog linked above has a detailed technical description of the T-100. The T-100 generally sells for $400-600 on eBay, but as high as $750-900 is possible for particularly nice ones. The all-time high was an excessive $1,025 on two occasions: in 9/05 for a nice T-100 with manuals, but no wooden cabinet, and again in 4/11 for one with no cabinet, no manuals, but an original box for whatever that's worth. [BF]
Accuphase T-101 (1974-81, $500, brochure, schematic)
The T-101 is an excellent-sounding FM-only tuner that has good
selectivity in stock form and a pretty sensitive 4-gang front end.
It has wide and narrow IF paths, but it uses linear phase LC
filters that would make modifications difficult. The T-101 is
probably better suited to audiophiles than to DXers, who can get
better selectivity from a less-expensive tuner modified with narrow
filters. Our contributor Thrassyvoulos says, "My T-101 has the best
macrodynamics and imaging of all tuners I've had, but is definitely
too bright." The T-101 usually sells for $300-400 on eBay, but as
low as $250 and up to around $500 are possible. The alltime high
was $600 in 4/04.
Accuphase T-106 (1984-86, $2,750, photo, black, brochure) search eBay
The rare T-106 is a nice-looking FM-AM digital synthesizer tuner that sounds better than almost any other digital on strong signals. It has 6 gangs and 5 ceramic filters, 14 station presets, a multipath meter, high-frequency filter and wide/narrow IF bandwidth selector, but strangely lacks a stereo-mono switch. On weak signals, in a side-by-side test, our panelist Eric's all-black T-106B (borrowed from our tuner benefactor Kevin) was not as quiet as a Kenwood 600T or KT-917, or a Sansui TU-X1. In addition, this T-106B's selectivity did not live up to its excellent published specs. It may have been out of alignment, or maybe just a bad piece - our panelist David "A" has owned several T-106s and has found its quality control to be inconsistent. Our contributor Glenn compared one T-106 to his Yamaha T-85 and Sony ST-J75 and decided that the T-106 is the best tuner he has owned to date: "It simply 'sings.' Definitely what FM is all about. While I'm not much of an AM listener, the T-106 is clearly also a cut above in its AM abilities. Does as well on AM as it does on FM. A superb tuner." T-106s sold on eBay for $670 in 3/02, $758 in 6/03, $1,166 in 10/07 and $548 in 12/09. [DA][EF]
Accuphase T-107 (1985-91, $1,800, photo, brochure)
The very rare FM-only T-107 might have been the best of the series of excellent digital tuners from Accuphase, at least until the T-1000 came along. Our panelist David "A" thought that the T-107 was, along with the Tandberg 3001A, "the high-water mark for varactor-based tuners. I have had two T-107s that are significantly quieter than the T-106, and I find that the T-107 can perform on a sonic level with tuners like the KT-917, for example, so they are quite good. They don't have quite the RF performance of a KT-917 but they aren't bad, either." The black version is also known as the T-107B. Two T-107s both sold for $575 on eBay in 9/03 and 11/04 and others went for $855 in 11/05, $441 in 10/07 and $498 in 8/08. [DA]
T-109 (1993-99, $3,300, photo, brochure) search eBay Accuphase T-109V (1999-present,
Users of the T-109, a very high-priced FM-only digital tuner, have
differences of opinion almost as extreme as Sumo Charlie users.
Although we know of one respected audiophile who thinks the T-109
sounds like a "cheap pocket radio" (perhaps his was out of
alignment), several contributors say the T-109 and its redesigned
successor, the FM-only T-109V, are among the best-sounding digitals. The
T-109 and T-109V both use a pulse count detector like several top
Kenwood tuners and, when properly aligned, are sensitive and highly
selective. There seem to have been different versions of the
T-109V, one with a balanced mixer and one without (and perhaps
other differences as well). The current Orion Bluebook adds to the
confusion by listing the T-109V as a 2003 model tuner ($2,200
list), even though the first T-109V apparently came out in 1999 and
was listed in an older edition of the Bluebook. See how one
T-109 and one T-109V sounded compared to other top
tuners on our Shootouts page, and read our panelist David "A"'s
the T-109V. T-109 sold on eBay for $1,200 in 1/03 and $1,453 in 5/07, and the only T-109V we've ever seen offered on eBay in the U.S. sold for $2,247
in 12/04 (one sold for 2,210 Euros, or $2,700, on eBay-Germany in
2/04). The two tuners' specs (which are identical) are available at
site, which also has a wonderfully detailed writeup on the T-109V.
T-1000 (2006, photo, brochure) search eBay
Our contributor Dana offers this review: "Out of the box, one has to be
impressed with the incredible build quailty of this and all Accuphase products. Having owned the T-100, T-106 and T-108 tuners and the E-202 integrated amp, I've had exposure to the wonderful build of Accuphase components. The T-1000 has a 5/8-inch aluminum faceplate that is sure to impress the neighbors, if that's your ilk. Weighing in at 26 pounds, this piece of eye-candy is still a lightweight compared to the TU-X1 at 34 pounds. The T-1000 stands at 5-1/2 inches high versus the 7-1/2 inches for the TU-X1, certainly more adaptable to existing audio stands. From an ergonomics perspective, this tuner doesn't overwhelm you with buttons and switches. It provides 16 small preset buttons that allow a total of 32 presets, with each button responsible for two station memories. Five small buttons provide muting, mono, MPX filter, frequency trim, and memory setting. A large tuning knob and power button complete the layout. Under the front glass faceplate is a signal-strength meter, station memory number, and reception frequency. The gold plastic remote control duplicates the same button selection with additional up and down tuning buttons.
So how does it perform? Well, from an audio perspective, it's quite impressive. I've not had the opportunity to listen to its predecessor, the T-109V, but with a strong signal, the T-1000 has the ability to provide a remarkable wide and deep soundstage, with deep palpable defined bass notes. Effortless highs are noted with a nice textured voice portrayal. Having owned the T-106 and T-108 at different times, I can say that this is a different breed of cat. I found the overall sound presentation of the earlier tuners to be quite thin and without real depth of soundstage. The T-1000 has the uncanny ability to separate and place mid and bass notes that I haven't experienced before with other tuners, such as the Sansui TU-919 or TU-X1. Again, from an audio perspective, this tuner performs in spades. Unless, of course, the MPX filter becomes necessary with noisy signals, then the highs become a tad rolled-off. I mention this because this tuner is not the most sensitive tuner I've experienced. Signals that the Kenwood 600T and the TU-919 and TU-X1 have no problem dealing with, seem noisy with the T-1000. A DXer's friend it is not. I'm disappointed that WCRB, the classical station out of Boston, seems to contain a background hiss that my APS-9B antenna can't eliminate. But other local stations provide a strong signal that brings out the best in this tuner. If you're an audiophile with a system that can take advantage of the T-1000 as a source, this tuner might be your FM nirvana."
Here's a follow-up from Dana: "Having owned the Accuphase T-100 for a decade, and now the T-1000 for a few months, I can say the aligned and modded T-100 had a definite edge over the T-1000 in the sensitivity department. That said, however, the T-1000 is no slouch. Better than most but not in the same league as the TU-X1, KT-917, T-85, 600T, MR 80, etc. A tad disappointing, nonetheless, especially for the entrance fee. I'm sure there must have been tradeoffs in the design and manufacture of the T-1000 to assure true audiophile sound, at the expense of sensitivity. From an audiophile perspective, the T-1000 is heads above the TU-X1 and any other vintage tuner I've owned, including the AH6731, TU-919, CT-7000, MR 80, etc. The quality of the bass note and the extension of the highs is apparent, especially when used digital out to a DAC." Read our panelist David "Anonymous"'s review of the T-1000 on the Ricochets page.
Adcom - Only one of
our panelists has ever used an Adcom tuner or tuner/preamp (he
wasn't impressed with the sound of the GTP-500), but our impression
(supported by reviews by Stereophile and others, and some sketchy
anecdotal evidence) is that they're decent-sounding on strong
signals but not particularly sensitive or selective. We'll list
many of them below, but with so many better vintage tuners
available in the used market, why bother with Adcom? If you've used
any of them and would like to rebut the foregoing, please post the
details in our FMtuners
Adcom GFT-1 (1981, $375, photo)
The GFT-1 usually sells for $60-100 on eBay, with a low of $30 in
8/04 and a high of $162 in 5/04 (when two newbies ran up the price
Adcom GFT-1A (1984, $375, black, silver,
The GFT-1A may be the Adcom tuner to try because it has three IF
filters, while most or all other Adcoms have two. The GFT-1A
usually sells for $40-60 on eBay, with a low of $20 in 8/08 and a high of $199 in 4/04 for one with wood side panels.
Adcom GFT-2 (1980, $250, front, back)
The GFT-2 usually sells for $30-50 on eBay, with a recent high of $114 in 7/08.
Adcom GFT-555 (1987, $300, black, white,
The GFT-555 usually sells for $30-50 on eBay, with a recent low of $22 in 10/08 and a recent high of $202 in 8/08 as two guys ran it up from $70.
Adcom GFT-555II (1990, $400, black, white,
The GFT-555II was available with a white face as well as the
typical black. It usually sells for $60-120 on eBay, with a recent high of
$250 for a mint one in 7/08 that seduced a newbie bidder.
Adcom GTP-350 (1993, $400, front, back)
The GTP-350 tuner/preamp usually sells for $80-120 on eBay, with a
recent low of $66 in 11/08.
Adcom GTP-400 (1989, $400, front, back)
The very common GTP-400 tuner/preamp was available with a white face as well as the typical black. It usually sells for $60-125 on eBay, with a recent
low and high of $50 in 7/08 and $200 in 6/09 for black ones. A white one in mint condition went for $300 in 12/07.
Adcom GTP-450 (1993, $500, front, back)
The extremely common GTP-450 tuner/preamp usually sells for
$80-150 on eBay, with a recent low of $62 in 8/08 and highs of $305 in 3/06 and $250 in 9/07. Don't overpay like those guys did.
Adcom GTP-500 (1987, $600, front)
The very common remote-controlled GTP-500 tuner/preamp is sometimes found with a silver face, as opposed to the typical black. It usually sells for $180-265 on
eBay, with lows of $102 in 7/07 and $117 in 11/08.
Adcom GTP500II (1989, $600, front, closeup)
The fairly common remote-controlled GTP-500II tuner/preamp was available in black or silver. It usually sells for $150-265 on eBay, with lows of $66 and $76 in 6/08.
ADS T2 Atelier (1984, $539/orig $400, front, open, back)
Surprisingly, we don't know much about the very common T2 Atelier except the basics. The front panel has 16 presets, Seek, Mute, High Blend and Stereo/Mono
controls, and one surprise: a fine-tuning control. In addition to
the usual antenna connections and RCA output jacks, the back panel
(strangely enough) has three AC outlets! Please post in our
if you have ever used this tuner. It usually sells for $60-100 on
eBay, with a low of $30 in 10/08 and occasional highs around $160.
Aiwa AT-9700U (front, inside)
The very rare 5-gang, FM-only AT-9700U is probably the only worthwhile tuner ever manufactured by Aiwa. Our contributor doug s. tells us that the
AT-9700U "has features like wide/narrow bandwidths, two hi-blend
levels, auto-lock tuning that can be disabled by slight off-center
tuning, multipath meter, variable/fixed outs, nice center-tune
indicator with arrows indicating you're off-tuned when not
centered, and a nice digital readout, as well as a lighted tuning
indicator on the analog dial." doug adds, "top notch sonics, good
sensitivity/selectivity, and one of the most ergonomically pleasing
tunas I have ever used." Our contributor Eli describes the tuning and multipath meters: "The meter has 10 LED segments that show signal strength.
Immediately below those LEDs (in the same window) are three more LEDs
for center tuning. A rotary switch changes the 10 segment display from signal strength to multipath indication." Here's a listing of the tuner's
features, believed to be from Aiwa's own literature: "5-gang
variable capacitor and 2 MOS FETs; quartz-controlled servo lock
(defeatable); dual position IF amplifier; 12-pole LC filter in
NORMAL, linear phase ceramic filter in NARROW; automatic
NORMAL/WIDE selection with manual override; quartz-controlled PLL
MPX; 10-element LED SIGNAL or MULTIPATH display; switchable 500 Hz
test tone generator; fixed and variable outputs; 75 ohm only input;
unswitched AC outlet on rear panel; manual two-step Hi-Blend and
Auto/Manual Stereo/Mono switching; manual FM Muting defeat switch;
digital display of frequency; flywheel slide rule tuning; brushed
aluminum face plate and controls." The AT-9700U usually sells for around $100 on eBay.
Akai AT-93 (1988,
$600, front 1, front 2, open, inside, Audio review)
The very rare AT-93 was Akai's most expensive and perhaps best
tuner. Our contributor Miklos reports, "I bought mine in Germany and it was
sitting in storage for about two years waiting for me to find a
schematic to change the de-emphasis to 75 µS. Since I couldn't find
a diagram, I finally decided to do it anyway. The tuner has a
completely discrete audio output stage, with about eight
transistors in each channel. The de-emphasis is sort of a unusual
one (balanced?), requiring one to change four capacitors, instead
the usual two. The unit uses quality components, like copper film
capacitors - I've never seen anything like it in any other tuner.
It is running now, and has heavenly sound." Our contributor Ray D. calls the AT-93 "an ergonomic and functional masterpiece: lots of functions, lots of automation and manual overrides for everything. Brilliant." The AT-93 usually sells for $250-285 on eBay, with a recent low of $127 in 11/06 and a recent high of $395 in 3/08 as two guys ran it up from $117.
Akai AT-2600 (1977, $300, silver, black, with amp, black with amp,
back, back with amp, gangs, schematic
left, schematic right, board layout)
The AT-2600 is a scarce, underrated AM-FM tuner with 5 FM gangs, 3 AM gangs, and 3 ceramic filters for FM. Its features include high blend, a variable muting level control and variable output, and it's also one of the few tuners with a deviation meter. Most AT-2600s have a silver face but it was also available in black. Our panelist Bob says, "The AT-2600 has unbelievable sensitivity. With narrower filters installed, it would likely be a killer cheap DX machine. I think it may be the separate AM and FM tuning gangs (only on the AT-2600, not on the AT-2650) that helps. That was *not* cheaper for Akai to do. They are not built like a KT-8300, but what else is? The AT-2600 beats the pants off a Magnum Dynalab. One other point, reception sensitivity benefits greatly by removing the internal connection to the balun (snip the lead from the 75 ohm input to the balun which is also connected to the 300 ohm inputs). I would also install a coax 75 ohm connector in place of the old-fashioned one." Our contributor Don N., the Chief of the TIC Copyright Police, adds: "I have two AT-2600s, one of which was modded. It comes in very close behind my KT-7300 for sound and knocks the pants off it for tuning capabilities. Pegs the signal-strength needle on almost every station across the board in my area (Seattle)." The AT-2600 usually sells for $70-125 on eBay, with a recent low and high of $50 in 10/08 and $200 in 12/07, respectively. [BF]
Akai AT-2650 (1979, $300, photo, back)
The AT-2650 is another underrated 5-gang tuner. Our panelist Bob's comments about the build quality of the AT-2600 apply as well to the AT-2650, although it lacks the AT-2600's separate AM and FM gangs. The AT-2650 usually sells for $80-125 on eBay. [BF]
Akai AT-K03 (1980) search eBay
Our contributor Ray D. has been seeking out unknown tuners and decided to try the AT-K03 because it seemed to be similar to the AT-V04. Here's his report:
"The front panel looks just like the AT-V04 with a larger tuning knob minus the presets, search and different muting levels. It seems to use exactly the same display and tuning lights. Tuning is indicated in 0.05 MHz increments like the V04. The controls are very basic: AM, FM, and stereo/mono that also controls muting. At the back there is a Local/Distant switch. The unit itself is quite heavy and solid. I had found out that the V04 and K03 share the same service manual so I hoped that the K03 might just be a V04 without the presets, which would make it a major bargain. I plugged it in and it seemed to have decent sensitivity, though nothing special, and it did not like my DIY square loop antenna. Then I realized that the rear switch was set to Local and the signal was being greatly attenuated. Setting it to Distant improved things greatly, as pretty much everything came in strong and clean. Sound quality is on the mellow side. Not terribly strong or extended in the highs compared to my better models, but when not doing an A/B comparison it sounds quite nice and warm on its own - a nice, relaxed listen. Downstairs it managed to get Vermont Public Radio in stereo when my Sony ST-J75 could only get it in mono. On the poor signal in the basement there was some noise, but more of a tolerable hiss than the warbles and whistles that most other tuners produce. Obviously the K03 is quite sensitive.
"The cover is amazingly heavy. I am not sure if that is a sign of great construction, or just a reflection of the fact that sheet metal might have been cheaper than electronic components when this tuner was made. I say this because I was surprised to find a very simple tuner with little in common with the AT-V04. The AT-K03 looks to be well made and quite tidy, but it seems to have only 3 gangs. Caps are mostly UCC with a few mylars. Lots of transistors, 25 or more. I found the following chips, all Sanyo I believe: LB1405 J3, LA1240 J1, LA3380 J4, and A1 231N J3. There is a low-pass filter marked 3368 8038V. The main board is labeled Akai ATK-2001A. This seems to be a very basic all-analog tuner with a digital diplay. Maybe it is more like the analog AT-K02 than the AT-V04. Given how simple it is, I wonder why it works so well? It is very nice to listen to, quiet, very sensitive and easy to use."
Akai AT-V04 (1980, $330, front1, front2, black, back1, back2, with amp, black with amp, schematic)
The 4-gang AT-V04 is a fairly common FM/AM digital tuner that was considered close to state-of-the-art for FM DXers in the early 1980s (if one excludes the Mac MR 78). Our contributor Marcus tells us that the AT-V04 tunes in 0.05 MHz increments for FM and 1 kHz increments for AM (highly unusual and great for AM DXers) and has 7 presets for each band. It claimed an excellent 1.6 µV IHF
sensitivity on FM and, with alternate channel selectivity of only 75 dB, might be a good candidate for a filter mod. Stock, it has 3 blue GDT-type ceramic filters. Our panelist Bob says the AT-V04 is "possibly the only cheap digital with a full analog feel. Not like the analog knob digitals - it is truly full analog tuning, like a Magnum. It goes into analog mode to tune off-channel. The front panel has a high-quality look and feel, all metal with metal buttons and knobs. The controls feel solid. There is a mini flywheel and tuning string inside, really cute as it is so small." There are buttons for two levels of muting on the front panel, and the back panel includes antenna attenuation switches (local/distant) for both FM and AM, and muting level and output
level adjustments. A 1980 review of the AT-V04 by an FM DXer may be found here. The AT-V04 usually sells for $35-75 on eBay, with occasional lows of $10-20 and a recent high of $128 in 6/07. A rare black AT-V04 went for $138 in 12/04. [BF][EF]
Amber Model 7
(1985, $380, photo, Audio review)
This excellent-sounding FM/AM digital tuner was the only model ever sold by Amber, a small Virginia-based high-end audio company. The Model 7 tuner, which was manufactured by Rotel, is extremely sensitive in mono but could be quieter on weak stereo signals, according to the original Stereophile review. In fact, in their well-known "Seven FM Tuners" report, Stereophile gave the Series 7
a grade of A ("the best available") for sensitivity, as well as an A for "stereo image and separation" (the other grades for the latter criterion were: McIntosh MR 78 - B, Luxman TX-101 - B, Onkyo T-9090 - C, Adcom GFT-1A - C, and Carver TX-11 - D). The Amber is unusually attractive, with solid wood (probably teak) end caps rather than the typical veneer. It has only 6 FM and 6 AM preset buttons, so those in large metro areas who like to memorize 27 stations need not apply. The tuner has the electronic equivalent of 4 gangs, but only two ceramic filters. In stock form, adjacent channel selectivity is poor, and the Amber should be considered a tuner for audiophiles and not DXers. In our panelist Jim's view, the sound is neutral with bass a little lighter than a stock Kenwood 600-T but better than a stock Kenwood KT-7500, and the treble is smoother than most older transistor tuners. The audio quality may be due to the short signal path and the audio circuit being so close to the output jacks. A contributor named Ed in our FMtuners group disagreed slightly with Jim: "On my sample, the bass is anything but light. I can't imagine any other tuner having fuller and/or heavier bass, but I'm sure there are. My Model 7 is very authoritative when it comes to the low-end extension."
Our contributor Ron J. wrote, "I've finally gotten around to fixing the Amber Model 7 I acquired some time ago. Despite seemingly no available information schematics or alignment procedures, I managed to muddle my way along and am quite happy with the outcome. While I can't consider this one of my 'best' tuners in this location, were I to live in a more urban area where sensitivity is not quite as important an issue I'd have no trouble keeping this one on the shelf. Unfortunately the stations I like to listen to most are very distant and at times present difficulties for my most sensitive tuners. My impressions of the tuner otherwise: While obviously inexpensive design-wise, this is most definitely one of the best-sounding tuners out of the box to cross my bench. It's easy on the ears, and I never 'tired' or found the sound irritating. If its close cousins of the time, some of the Rotel line, sound like this, there may be a whole new line of sparrow feed. Frequency response is quite accurate through the upper midrange, neither lacking in nor having the bass boosted, though some seem to like the latter. I can only fault the early rolloff on the upper end. I should add that I did not try to adjust it out through the uncommon adjustable low-pass filter this tuner uses. There's probably a tradeoff between blocking the pilot as well as it is and losing a little of the top end of hearable audio. This tuner sounds and has a sensitivity pattern a lot like the Mitsubishi DA-F20. I'd also compare it closely to some of the Sansui tuners of its time.
"This is a rather inexpensive design, 4-stage varactor tuning followed by an IF amp stage and two non-GDT Murata filters. This is followed by a Sanyo LA-1231 Quad Detector-IF amp, followed by the Hitachi HA1196 for MPX. From there the output is basically bufferless, passing only through a nice discrete and adjustable low-pass filter stage, and a Sanyo/Panasonic Pop-Noise reduction AN6135. The AN6135 outputs the signal at unity to a slight gain only. One thing that probably was not cheaper for the manufacturer was the use of all Nichicon caps, save for a few styrenes used in the audio stage. For once I can say I think the noise reduction actually works, in particular on quieter signals. I have a hard time quantifying it with my ears but the scope says there's a difference. In total, the combination of bufferless output, noise reduction and discrete components where used are responsible for the good sound. The addition of a handful of quality caps in the audio section and perhaps a filter adder board in the IF ought to make this into a much better tuner. In the negative column Ė- perhaps due to age, perhaps due to inexpensive design -- this unit seems to have quirks with the control of tuning and with cold solder joints. Automatic tuning will occasionally lock up at the top end of the dial rather than either coming around to the low end or just stopping. The cure is easy enough, though -- only resetting (powering off) the unit. This does not happen under manual tuning so it is either an aged chip or a design issue."
Ron also notes that the Model 7 "came in either a silver or black-faced version. Someone had mentioned thinking the sideboards were solid teak, but my nose tells me they're solid walnut." The Model 7 usually sells for $50-130 on eBay, with a high of $191 in 8/07. [JR]
AMC T7 (front, inside, schematic)
and AMC T7a
Our panelist JohnC reports: "The T7 is a single-IF, AM/FM tuner with 30 presets and is remote capable. It was designed/engineered in London/Los Angeles and manufactured in Taiwan under the AMC International Quality Standards, and the parent company is Weltronics Corp. My initial impression was that this is a pretty good-sounding model. Compared to the recently auditioned Denon TU-460, the T7 is quieter and a bit more selective. The spec sheet indicates a S/N ratio of >74 dB, carrier suppression (19 & 38 kHz) 60 dB and .08% THD @ 1K. The front-panel layout is clean -- some might say spartan. Power button, Preset Input, Memory, Band, Mono, Auto and Manual tuning, and thatís it. The T7 tunes in 200 kHz increments and its digital display includes a center-tune indicator similar to the Mitsubishi DA-F20's. The T7 images well with good separation, frequency extremes are more than acceptable, long-term listening is comfortable with no apparent brightness, and it has decent-but-not-great bass. The remote provides only band selection, tuning and preset selection. Power On and preset programming still have to be done at the tuner itself.
"Pulling the cover makes one wonder how this thing actually works. In comparison, the T7 makes the Denon TU-460 appear downright crowded, and the 460 is an empty box. The T7's tuner board, which includes the power supply rectification, measures a little over 6 x 4 inches. The tuner appears to be well made, with a double-sided board, glass substrate, polystyrenes in the de-emphasis, and through hole plating for the components, which may halt any thought of ever modding the T7. The Mitsumi front end is a 4 gang (thanks Jov and Don) equivalent varactor, followed by a 3 ceramic filter IF strip. The AM/FM IC is the Sanyo LA1266 which feeds an LA3401 MPX services IC, with no audio buffer in the output. There is a 7a version of this tuner but I havenít had the opportunity to pull a cover and see what changes were implemented there."
Our panelist Bob adds this observation: "I don't see any trim caps for the 4 gangs. Usually on most tuner front ends there are as many adjustment caps as there are adjustable coils, one pair of each for each gang. This means alignment may be somewhat compromised on the ends of the FM band, as you are forced to make all adjustments mid-band at 98 MHz in this case, where you have only coils to adjust (and adjustment is by bending)." The T7 and T7a usually sell for $40-80 on eBay (with a low of $10 in 4/09 for a T7a with no remote). [JC]
The 4T2 is a very rare tuner that was seldom seen in the secondary market until an eBay seller sold off a large stash of "new old stock" pieces in 2007-2008, and some of those same units have been in circulation since. Please post in our FMtuners group if you
have any information about the 4T2. The 4T2 usually sells for $210-285 on eBay, with a low of $179 in 10/08 and a high of $381 for a new one in 8/08.
Please post in our FMtuners group if you
have any information about any Arcam tuner. We're tracking eBay
sale prices for a couple of them in the On-Deck Circle.
Dynamics T-200 (1988, $429) search eBay
We don't know much about the T-200 but our contributor Keith tells us that it apparently "used the same circuit board as the dbx TX-3 MkII. The MkII has some additional features for other dbx components, such as remote control link, and also includes a frequency step adjustment that the T-200 lacks. Some specs on the T-200 are: usable sensitivity 9.4 dBf Wide, 15 dBf Narrow; capture ratio 1.5 dB; stereo seperation 39 dB at 100 Hz, 41.5 dB at 1 kHz and 37 dB at 10,000 Hz in Wide, and 47/50.5/48 dB in Narrow; S/N ratio @65 dBf Mono 83, Stereo 78.5; image rejection 132 dB; frequency response 20-15,000 Hz +0.6, -0 dB. Listening impressions: this is a very quiet tuner. A very well-balanced soundstage that extends beyond the speakers, with a slight forward character. Deep bass with smooth extended highs. A very natural, dynamic sound. I very much prefer it to the Kenwood Basic T-2, which has a more laidback, reserved sound, with a slightly less punchy bass. The T-200 in Narrow sounds similiar to the Kenwood in Wide. Maybe the Kenwood needs an alignment.
"The T-200 has a nice heavy front panel, with high-quality feel switches, and a very smooth rotary tuning knob. It also has scan up and down and a center tuning meter with opposing arrows (red) and a green indicator that lets you know you're locked on. It incorporates auto IF switching that can be overidden but only to the narrow position, very odd. The good news is that the tuner always seems to choose the right setting for lowest distortion and noise. It also has separate stereo/mono and mute buttons. The switchable Schotz noise reduction circuit works well - I usually leave it on, as it only comes into play with signal levels less than 55 dBf. Very easy to use, with little fiddling required. The AM section is a bit of a disappointment. Although it has a very extended range, it seems to be susceptible to electrical interference in the house, whereas the Kenwood is extremely quiet and sensitive as well. The Kenwood T-2 has a outstanding AM section with a slider IF adjustment, so I'm keeping the Kenwood for AM listening. The T-200 appears to be a great value at current prices. I paid less than $35 for two of them. I can't attest to DX capabilities, since I only use a deck-mounted dipole antenna, which works well for me for now." The T-200 usually sells for $40-80 on eBay, with a low of $30 in 9/06 and a high of $100 in 5/04.
Dynamics T-2000E (1989, $349) search eBay We know even less about the T-2000E than we know about the T-200. Please post in our FMtuners group if you can tell us about it. Here's a review of the T-2000E from Audio magazine. The T-2000E usually sells for $50-80 on eBay, with a low of $10 in 5/05.
(1990, $1,200, photo1, photo2, service manual)
Our panelist Jim tested this unimpressive-looking black digital, made by Cambridge Systems Technology Ltd., and called it "a wonderful-sounding tuner." See how Jim compared this 8000T to other top tuners on our Shootouts page. Our contributors Tim and Ann warn, "We subscribe to most of the major UK publications and virtually all of them have noted serious reliability problems with this model. The specific problem these magazines noted was a logic board failure and once this board
failed, the tuner ceased to function. And these boards are no longer available." The 8000T only comes along a few times a year on eBay and usually sells for $300-610, with a high of $894 in 3/05.
Audiophonics ST-3120 search eBay
Please post in our FMtuners group if you have any information about this scarce tuner. It looks pretty
flashy, but we believe it's mostly an "empty box" inside and not worth the $150-200 that it can fetch on eBay. The ST-3120's lesser sibling, the ST-1120, has sold for $5-10 on eBay.
CAUTION: This is a mediocre (or worse) Korean-made tuner that seems to turn up most often in Canada. It sometimes sells for high prices, presumably because buyers are confusing it with something else. All we know is that it has 3 gangs for FM and 2 for AM, certainly not what you'll find in a top tuner. Please post in our FMtuners group if you have any information about it. The last few ST-2000s we've seen on eBay have gone for $141 in 4/07, $56 in 12/08, $255 in 4/09, $26 in 6/09 and $170 in 2/11 (guess which buyers didn't read our caveat).
Please post in our FMtuners group if you have any information about any Audiosource tuner. We're tracking
eBay sale prices for a few of them in the On-Deck Circle.
(1991, $398, photo)
The TS-108 is a very attractive tuner that our contributor Ed Hanlon tells us
was the predecessor of the Fanfare FT-1. Ed says the TS-108's
"ergonomics left a lot to be desired, but it performed superbly
with some basic mods. B&K stopped selling the 108 when Fanfare
took the tuner and added balanced outputs, remote, etc." Ed adds
that a TS-108 modified with narrow filters "can be a DX machine,
and can sound darned good too." Our panelist Jim tours the inside
of a stock TS-108 with a circuit board dated 9/20/91: "There are
three ceramic filters that appear to be Toko, marked CER 1, 2 and
3. The markings are SK4MH on CER 1 and SKM2C on CER 2 and 3. There
are four IC's inside and, moving left to right, we see an LM1865N
advanced FM IF system, LM4500 MPX chip, LC 4966 Sanyo Quad
bilateral switch and an Analog Devices brand AD712 high-speed
bi-FET as a buffer after the LPF. This buffer has no negative
supply. There are two 10 µF NP electrolytic caps after the MPX and
two of the same after the AD712. All in all, a valient attempt at
good sound in a small package and fairly successful, IMO. Tuning
down the dial is very slow but eight stations can be stored in
presets. There is a wide/narrow switch, and a switch marked DX that
always increased signal strength when used." See how one TS-108
sounded compared to other top tuners on our Shootouts page. The TS-108 usually
sells for $130-190 on eBay, but as low as $75-90 is possible when
sold "as is." A rare gold-faced TS-108 sold for $200 on eBay in
A gorgeous German tuner with RDS, uniquely wide (400 kHz) and uniquely narrow (110 kHz) IF bandwidths, 60 presets, dual antenna inputs, balanced and
unbalanced outputs, and a stratospheric price tag. The Orion
Bluebook lists a "Top-Line" version, manufactured from 1997-2002
with a last list price of $11,200, and a "Reference" version,
manufactured from 2002 on, with a list of $14,200. See how our
panelist Jim ranked the 978 compared to other top tuners in the
final installment of Shootouts.
Here's Burmester's own description of the
The FM tuner 978 is our flagship product in the
tuner market. Even in comparison with its already legendary
predecessor, the 915, the 978 offers further dramatic improvement
in sound quality. The German magazine Audio called it "divine" and
uses it as reference tuner.
Why offer an FM tuner of this quality and price
level in a restless world dominated by digital audiosystems? A
justified question - but then, think about those constantly
changing digital recording and broadcasting standards, some of
which have been much-touted but long in coming and some of which
have already disappeared again, such as the DSR standard. In the
final analysis only an FM tuner offers unrestricted access to the
virtually unlimited supply of recorded music broadcast by
radiostations. The 978 also proves convincingly that the perfect
reception of an FM station via cable can be an exhilerating musical
With its totally re-designed Burmester front end,
the 978 offers a sound quality and musical enjoyment never before
heard from FM broadcasts. The front end has been completely
developed in-house through intensive research and built with only
highest-quality parts. Using our own technology we were able to
realize the excellent-sounding wide-IF solution with 400 kHz
The 978 is available in two models: As 978 Top
Line Tuner in our top line housing with a 482mm wide front panel
and as 978 Reference Tuner with a 450mm wide front panel in our
extremely sophisticated reference housing. Both are characterized
by clean design, high-grade material and excellent
Burmester-typical uncompromising manufacturing
Technical Features of the Tuner 978 Input
Gallium-arsenide transistors in the input amplifier with a cut-off
frequency of 1 GHz for linear phase response and stable group delay
Seven tuning ranges for high selectivity of the tuned frequency
Active high-level mixer with a 3rd order intercept point of
typically +30dBm for high intermodulation rejection (sophisticated
military radio technology)
Four separate voltage regulators directly at the switching stages
for stable voltage at the front end
Additional sophisticated stabilization of the tuning voltage with a
filter capacity of 8000µF
De-coupling of the front end's operation voltage by special filters
to avoid polluting the operation voltage of the AF stages with RF
Bandwidth app. 400kHz (the typical wide IF bandwidth is 200 to
For smooth sound the wide IF is filtered by two phase-linear
wideband 6-circuit LC bandpass filters which are de-coupled by
amplifiers; trimming of IF at 18 filters overall; IF amplifiers
operated on balanced power supply; use of two separate stereo
decoders makes it possible to individually optimize each channel
and tune it for minimal crosstalk
Bandwidth app. 110kHz; four filter stages with group-delay stable
narrow band ceramic filters, connected in series and de-coupled by
amplifiers; IF amplifiers operate on balanced power
Balanced discrete and DC-coupled Burmester X-Amp stages (class A)
with offset closed loop; additional filtering of the X-Amp stages
with overall 55000µF; no relays in the AF signal path, during
muting the output is shorted to
Low-leakage toroidal-core transformer with an output of 50VA;
filter capacity of 42000µF in the power supply alone; chamber
system totally isolates the power supply from all other
Functions: RDS station display; numerical buttons
for direct-dialling of frequencies or preset stations; 60 preset
stations; display-off switch; signal-stength indicator with eight
LEDs; narrow IF; two parallel antenna inputs as standard (optional:
one input with attenuation step); infrared remote control 003 for
preset stations; mono setting
Balanced and unbalanced
Signal-to-noise ratio: >= 80dB (!)
Cross talk attenuation: >=60dB
Rejection of ultra-sound components: 19kHz >= 94dB, 38kHz >=
Power consumption: 38W
Metal system remote 003 supplied as standard
Weight: 28 kg
Dimensions (W x H x D): 450 x 160 x 320
The T500 has a silver face and a blue backlit LCD display. Our panelist Jim got to play with one and ranked the sound of that sample in comparison to many top tuners on our Shootouts page. The T500 usually sells for $75-85 on eBay, with a high of $164 in 5/07.
Carver TX-11 (1983, $600/orig $550,
The FM-only TX-11 was a favorite of some DXers in the '80s (here's a 1983
review) and had a reputation for being very quiet in mono on weak signals. Back then, very few knew about filter modifications, and a tuner with great adjacent channel rejection was a revelation (until the Onkyo T-9090 came out in 1984, the McIntosh MR 78 was about the only other option for DXers). Although there are always those with differing opinions, the majority now find the TX-11
mediocre-sounding or worse in stereo, with poor separation. Our contributor John V. adds that the TX-11 has "fair to decent bass, but the top end sorta sizzles - no real extension or details." Our own view is that most good vintage tuners are only one or two narrow filters away from being as good as, or better than the TX-11 for DXing, while also satisfying audiophiles. As to the possibility of modifying a TX-11 for improved sound, our DIY audiophile panelist Jim owned one for awhile, but "wasn't impressed with the sound and looking in on those multi-tiered boards of digital madness made me back off trying to improve anything."
Our contributor Girard, the proprietor of the DXFM website, likes the Denon TU-1500RD and Onkyo T-9090II for DXing but says, "I think the worst of the 'big name' tuners I tested here was the Carver TX-11. It has great specs when connected to a communications analyzer, but it sure went to H*** when exposed to the signal levels I have at this location." DXer Bill N. says, "The TX-11 was a great DX tuner for its time except that it had a really funky echo when making stereo signals sound static-free. The tuner itself was very sensitive and OK for overload (not great) and so-so for selectivity unless you replaced most of the filters. Problem was that replacing the filters made the S-meter useless (it always showed full scale or close to it). Also, it had a ton of front-panel presets. I sold mine when I moved under the transmitters in Hartford as it just couldn't handle the overload." Our contributor Richie points out that the U.S. version he owns has larger, easier-to-see LED lamps than his Japanese model, and the U.S. version's sensitivity is better. The TX-11 usually sells for anywhere from $50-125 on eBay, but even lower is not uncommon (the all-time low is $28 in 9/09). The recent high was an inexplicable $229 in 2/06, so apparently not everyone has read this review. Someone paid $256 for a mint one in 10/03, and one poor guy paid $375 for one in 4/02 that had a sticker on the box that said: "Latest Circuit Refinements. All Sonic Improvements." What does that say about the audio quality of an "unimproved" TX-11? [JR]
Carver TX-11a (1986, $730, photo)
This pricier successor to the TX-11, among the few tuners with AM stereo capability, apparently featured improved sonics on FM as well. Our contributor Noel reports: "I talked to the Carver people about the differences between the various TX-11s. They said forget the TX-11, Carver put a lot more in the audio
stages in the TX-11a, and really put all they had in the TX-11b." Our contributor Lance says, "I was shocked at how much better my Carver TX-11a sounds/receives compared to the Nakamichi ST-7." Our contributor Richie, who wanted to listen to a noisy weak station, adds: "I sold my [Sansui] TU-919 and got a mint condition TX-11a. What a difference. It pulled in that station nearly noise-free and when pressing in the multipath noise limiter it's as clean as new
linen, without killing the stereo separation. It's one quiet tuner and it looks good too. Critics say the sound is mediocre -- I say it sounds great and crisp." John Byrns says, "The AM reception of the MCS 3050 is better than the TX-11a - it doesn't have the high noise level of the TX-11a. Unfortunately, the sound of the MCS 3050 is very gritty and sibilant on both AM and FM, while the sound of
the TX-11a is undistorted save for the background hiss." The TX-11a usually sells for $150-215 on eBay, with a record low of $57 in 4/09 and a recent high of $305 in 2/08.
Carver TX-11b (1989, $800,
photo, owner's manual part 1, owner's manual part 2)
This successor to the TX-11a also featured AM stereo capability and supposedly even more sonic improvement, although we've never done a shootout between the two. See our contributor Noel's comment in the TX-11a review above. Here's our panelist Ray's report: "The TX-11b has been great fun to play with. Now, having spent some quality time with it, I cannot understand why the FMtuners group hasn't heard all that much about this thing - it's really sweet. Could it topple the FT-5500 MKII from the peak position in RFM's heart? Well, they sound about the same (and that's compared to the modded Hitachi), the Carver DXes a bit better and quiets a lot better, but the Hitachi does have that precious dBuV signal strength meter, so, left alone on that ol' desert island with only one tuner I'd have to choose... the TX-11b. Man that hurt! A brief report:
The FM noise and multipath reduction all appears to be done in the audio circuit realm as is the Schotz noise reduction, but it seems FAR more effective. AM performance and sound are also pretty special but in Wide mode it lets in adjacent stations. Two complaints: At its price Carver should have added a digital signal-strength meter, and the gray letters and numbers on the black dashboard are very difficult to read. Come on Carver, white, hunh? Still, ol' RFM really likes this Carver creation and it has found a spot both in his rack and in his heart."
Here's a follow-up from Ray: "I pulled the noise reduction board off the top of the main board so I could run a frequency/de-emphasis response test. No surprise here as the results were very good. It's accurate to the 75 µS curve to +/- 0.15 dB from 20 Hz to 10 kHz and is down 0.95 dB at 15 kHz. The -3 dB point was 2139 Hz giving a time constant of 74.4 µS. The tuner's audio signal output polarity is in phase with that received but is flipped at the detector out. I see no reason to add a detector out jack to this tuner. Surprisingly the FT-5500 MKII does top the Carver in AM reception. The Carver's wide bandwidth, even in Narrow mode, lets in adjacents too much, especially at night when all signals are strong. The upside, of course, is that when not interfered with the sound is very good, even pushing FM on local or clear channel stations. The Hitachi sounds nearly as good in AM Wide but is much more selective when in Narrow and sounding more like typical AM."
Our panelist Eric added: "Really a nice tuner, especially the little bells and whistles like noise reduction, multipath and AM noise limiter. On AM it is a star; on FM it is just about as sensitive as the Sony XDR, and selectivity unmodded is fine for all but the strongest adjacents. There is even one fringe station, on 100.1, on which the Carver quiets significantly better than the Sony. I looked all up and down the band for another case where the Carver was quieter but couldn't find one, so I can't explain that." The TX-11b usually sells for $250-400 on eBay, with a recent low and high of $180 in 7/09 and $493 in 1/07, respectively, but seems to provoke bizarre behavior in naive bidders: three spendthrifts ran up the price of a TX-11b in a sealed box from $300 to $960 in 11/03, and in 1/04, two nuts chased each other from $309 all the way to $775. See how one TX-11b sounded compared to many top tuners on our Shootouts page.
Classé Audio Tuner 1
Please post in our FMtuners group if you
have ever used this scarce modern silver or black tuner. It usually sells for $375-520 on eBay, with a high of $677 in 7/08.
Creek Audio Systems Model 3140 a/k/a CAS3140 (1988, $375, owner's manual, Audio review)
The Creek 3140 is a British tuner that is fairly rare in the U.S. According to our contributor doug s., the 3140 is "a really nice-sounding and quite sensitive analog tuna with digital readout, for not a lot of scratch. Quite diminutive in size, as well. It has a local/DX switch, wide/narrow band, stereo/mono, AFC on/off, and an auto-blend circuit." Our contributor Ray D. says, "Neat little tuner. Few buttons, but everything you need is there. Lots of clever automatic circuits, according to the manual, and great touches like the fact that the display intensity changes with signal strength." Ray compared his 3140 to a Meridian 204: "The 204 sounded livelier pretty much right off the bat. More detailed highs, perhaps a bit forward which is surprising to me for a Meridian product. Maybe the Creek is a bit laidback. The low end on the Creek was surprising, about as good as the 204, but overall the 3140 had less of a sense of space and a smaller soundstage. Still a very good performance given that it was about one-quarter of the price of the 204 when they were sold new. The Creek is a very good-sounding tuner on its own. I can't help but wonder if it might sound even better with 4X more output from the DIN socket as the RCA outputs have only 150 mV output compared to 550 mV for the DIN. Oh yeah, the RCA sockets are undersized and heavy cables tend to fall off if touched - annoying." Ray also found the 3140 slightly less sensitive than the Meridian. The 3140 usually sells for $75-110 on eBay.
Crown FM1 (1979, $995, inside, Audio review) search eBay
The FM1 is a 6-gang, FM-only tuner with 3 ceramic filters and one "SAW" (Surface Acoustic Wave) filter, like those used in some of the better Kenwood tuners. Our contributor Dave N. observes that the FM1 has variable outputs with independent controls for the left and right channels, and a mute adjustment on the back along with multipath outputs. The ceramic filters are socketed rather than soldered, so it would be easy to swap them out for narrower ones. Our contributor Jovit analyzed the service manual: "The FM1 uses quadrature detection using the common CA/LM3189 IC compared to the pulse count detection (HA12401) in the FM2. The first thing that I've notice is the presence of too many IC sockets in the FM1 design. If the tuner were mine, I would get rid of all these sockets. I'd also remove the ceramic filter sockets. Sockets add stray inductance and capacitance on high frequency circuits aside from the long term reliability issue. The internal wiring looks tidy but is not necessarily the best approach in terms of minimizing noise. The MPX board PCB layout has a very limited ground plane compared to the rest of the boards. I also noticed the 7-segment display wires running directly on top of the MPX board's gain blocks. This could explain the not-so-good spec of -65 dB hum and noise. Crown used non-audio grade CMOS bilateral switches (MC14016/CD4016) in the audio path for muting and MPX noise filter. These can be upgraded to Sanyo's LC4966. These are just my impression of the internals and I don't own one." Our contributor Walter reports: "I borrowed the FM1 for a week to see if I wanted to buy it for myself. This was 1982, and all I had was an indoor yagi with no rotor. It pulled in stations that the Onkyo T-4055 could only dream about. The FM1's controls and general build quality said military or laboratory spec. The sound was also chilly and antiseptic like a lab. I could have snagged it for something like $375, but I passed. No other Crown experience." A free service manual is available from Crown's website. The FM1 usually sells for $280-400 on eBay, with recent lows of $102 and $114 in 10/08 and a recent high of $610 in 1/09. The all-time high was a stunning $1,153 in 10/03 for one with a manual, and a damaged one even sold for $710 in 1/04.
Crown FM2 (1979, $770, Audio review) search eBay
and Crown FM3 (1985, $795) search eBay
Please post in our FMtuners group if you
have any information about the FM2 or FM3. The FM2 is an FM-only tuner, and the FM3 is FM-AM. The FM2 usually sells for $150-380 on eBay, with a high of $502 in 2/05. The FM3 is rare and we've seen it sell recently on eBay for $257 in 7/07, $455 in 11/07 with a wood case and $162 in 11/08.